Syslinux

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Özet
Syslinux, önyükleyicilerin bir koleksiyonu, kurulumu ve yapılandırılması anlatılmaktadır.


Genel Bakış
Arch Linux' u başlatabilmek için GRUB, GRUB2, LILO veya Syslinux gibi bir Linux uyumlu önyükleyicinin sabit diskin MBR kaydına veya GUID Bölümlendirme Tablosuna kurulu olması gerekir. Bir önyükleyici, önyükleme süreci başlamadan önce çekirdeği ve birincil ram diski yüklemekten sorumludur.



Syslinux, sabit diskler, CD/DVDler ve PXE ile ağ üzerinden önyükleme yapabilen bir önyükleyiciler koleksiyonudur. Ext2, ext3, ext4, fat ve btrfs dosya sistemlerini destekler.


Kalem.png
ÖNEMLİ:
Syslinux 4 sürümünden beri, Extlinux ve Syslinux aynı şeyi ifade etmektedir.

Konu başlıkları

Syslinux Önyükleme Süreci

Açılışta bilgisayar MBR (/usr/lib/syslinux/mbr.bin) yükler. Daha sonra MBR etkin (önyükleme işaretli) sabit disk bölümünü arar. Bulunduğunda disk bölümü önyükleme kaydı (VBR-Volume Boot Record) çalıştırılır. Ext2/3/4 ve fat12/*16/32 dosya sistemlerinde ldlinux.sys başlangıç sektörü VBR içine kodlanmıştır. VBR (ldlinux.sys) çalıştırır. Bunun sonucu olarak ldlinux.sys yeri değişirse syslinux önyükleme yapamaz. Btrfs dosya sisteminde yukarıdaki yöntem işlemez çünkü dosyalar sürekli yer değiştirirler ve ldlinux.sys konumu da değişir. Bunun bir sonucu olarak tüm Syslinux kodunun dosya sistemi dışında kayıtlı olması gerekir. Kod, VBR' yi takip eden sektörlerde tutulur.Syslinux tam olarak yüklendiğinde, yapılandırma dosyasını (ya extlinux.conf veya syslinux.cfg) arar. Biri bulunduğunda yapılandırma yüklenir. Bulunamazsa syslinux kabuğu ile karşılaşırsınız.

Kurulum

Otomatik Kurulum - syslinux

Syslinux-install_update betiği Syslinux' u kurar, COM32 modüllerini /boot/syslinux dizinine kopyalar, önyükleme işaretini ayarlar ve MBR üzerine kurulum yapar. Softraid ile birlikte MBR ve GPT sabit disklerle de çalışabilir.

1. syslinuxu kurun:

pacman -S syslinux

2. /boot dizininin sisteme bağlı olduğundan emin olun
3. syslinux-install_update betiğini şu anahtarlarla çalıştırın: -i (kur) -a (önyükleme işaretini ayarla) -m (mbr üzerine kur)

/usr/sbin/syslinux-install_update -iam

4. /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg yapılandırma dosyasını düzenleyin

Elle kurulum - syslinux

Kalem.png
ÖNEMLİ:
If you are unsure of which partition table you are using (MBR or GPT), you are likely using the MBR partition table. Most of the time GPT will create a special MBR-style partition (type 0xEE) using the whole disk which will be displayed with the following command:
fdisk -l /dev/sda

or alternatively

sgdisk -l /dev/sda

will show " GPT: not present" if it is not a GPT disk.



Kalem.png
ÖNEMLİ:
If you are trying to rescue an installed system with a live CD, be sure to chroot into it before executing these commands. If you do not chroot first, you must prepend all file paths (not /dev/ paths) with the mount point.

Make sure you have the syslinux package installed. Then install Syslinux onto your boot partition, which must contain a fat, ext2, ext3, ext4, or btrfs file system. You should install it on a mounted directory, not a /dev/sdXY device. You do not have to install it on the root directory of a file system, e.g., with device /dev/sda1 mounted on /boot you can install syslinux in the syslinux directory:

mkdir /boot/syslinux
extlinux --install /boot/syslinux 

MBR Partition Table

Next you need mark your boot partition active in your partition table. Applications capable of doing this include fdisk, cfdisk, sfdisk, (g)parted. It should look like this:

fdisk -l /dev/sda
[...]
  Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048      104447       51200   83  Linux
/dev/sda2          104448   625142447   312519000   83  Linux

Install the master boot record:

dd bs=440 conv=notrunc count=1 if=/usr/lib/syslinux/mbr.bin of=/dev/sda

GUID Partition Table aka GPT

Main article GUID Partition Table.

Bit 2 of the attributes for the /boot partition need to be set.

sgdisk /dev/sda --attributes=1:set:2

This would toggle the attribute legacy BIOS bootable on partition 1

Verify:

sgdisk /dev/sda --attributes=1:show
1:2:1 (legacy BIOS bootable)

Install the master boot record:

dd bs=440 conv=notrunc count=1 if=/usr/lib/syslinux/gptmbr.bin of=/dev/sda

Rebooting

When you reboot your system now, you will have a syslinux prompt. To automatically boot your system or get a boot menu, you still need to create a configuration file.

Configuring syslinux

The syslinux configuration file, syslinux.cfg, should be created in the same directory where you installed syslinux. In our case, '/boot/syslinux/'.

The bootloader will look for either syslinux.cfg (preferred) or extlinux.conf

Tips:

  • Instead of LINUX, the keyword KERNEL can also be used. KERNEL tries to detect the type of the file, while LINUX always expects a Linux kernel.
  • TIMEOUT value is in units of 1/10 of a second.

Examples

Basic Syslinux Config

This is a simple configuration file that will show a boot: prompt and automatically boot after 5 seconds.

Config:

PROMPT 1
TIMEOUT 50
DEFAULT arch

LABEL arch
        LINUX ../vmlinuz-linux
        APPEND root=/dev/sda2 ro
        INITRD ../initramfs-linux.img

LABEL archfallback
        LINUX ../vmlinuz-linux
        APPEND root=/dev/sda2 ro
        INITRD ../initramfs-linux-fallback.img

If you want to boot directly without seeing a prompt, set PROMPT to 0.

If you want to use UUID for persistent device naming instead of device names, change:

APPEND root=/dev/sda2 ro

to:

APPEND root=UUID=<uuid here> ro

Text Boot menu

Syslinux also allows you to use a boot menu. To use it, copy the menu COM32 module to your syslinux directory:

cp /usr/lib/syslinux/menu.c32 /boot/syslinux/

If /boot is in the same partition as /usr, a symlink will also work:

ln -s /usr/lib/syslinux/menu.c32 /boot/syslinux/

Config:

UI menu.c32
PROMPT 0

MENU TITLE Boot Menu
TIMEOUT 50
DEFAULT arch

LABEL arch
        MENU LABEL Arch Linux
        LINUX ../vmlinuz-linux
        APPEND root=/dev/sda2 ro
        INITRD ../initramfs-linux.img

LABEL archfallback
        MENU LABEL Arch Linux Fallback
        LINUX /vmlinuz-linux
        APPEND root=/dev/sda2 ro
        INITRD /initramfs-linux-fallback.img

For more details about the menu system, see http://git.kernel.org/?p=boot/syslinux/syslinux.git;a=blob;f=doc/menu.txt.

Graphical Boot menu

Syslinux also allows you to use a graphical boot menu. To use it, copy the vesamenu COM32 module to your syslinux folder:

cp /usr/lib/syslinux/vesamenu.c32 /boot/syslinux/

If /boot is the same partition as /, a symlink will also work:

ln -s /usr/lib/syslinux/vesamenu.c32 /boot/syslinux/

This config uses the same menu design as the Arch Install CD. The background file can be found there too.

Config:

UI vesamenu.c32
DEFAULT arch
PROMPT 0
MENU TITLE Boot Menu
MENU BACKGROUND splash.png
TIMEOUT 50

MENU WIDTH 78
MENU MARGIN 4
MENU ROWS 5
MENU VSHIFT 10
MENU TIMEOUTROW 13
MENU TABMSGROW 11
MENU CMDLINEROW 11
MENU HELPMSGROW 16
MENU HELPMSGENDROW 29

# Refer to http://www.syslinux.org/wiki/index.php/Comboot/menu.c32

MENU COLOR border       30;44   #40ffffff #a0000000 std
MENU COLOR title        1;36;44 #9033ccff #a0000000 std
MENU COLOR sel          7;37;40 #e0ffffff #20ffffff all
MENU COLOR unsel        37;44   #50ffffff #a0000000 std
MENU COLOR help         37;40   #c0ffffff #a0000000 std
MENU COLOR timeout_msg  37;40   #80ffffff #00000000 std
MENU COLOR timeout      1;37;40 #c0ffffff #00000000 std
MENU COLOR msg07        37;40   #90ffffff #a0000000 std
MENU COLOR tabmsg       31;40   #30ffffff #00000000 std


LABEL arch
        MENU LABEL Arch Linux
        LINUX ../vmlinuz-linux
        APPEND root=/dev/sda2 ro
        INITRD ../initramfs-linux.img


LABEL archfallback
        MENU LABEL Arch Linux Fallback
        LINUX ../vmlinuz-linux
        APPEND root=/dev/sda2 ro
        INITRD ../initramfs-linux-fallback.img


Since Syslinux 3.84, vesamenu.c32 supports the "MENU RESOLUTION $WIDTH $HEIGHT" directive. To use it, insert "MENU RESOLUTION 1440 900" into your config for a 1440x900 resolution. The background picture has to have exactly the right resolution, however, as syslinux will otherwise refuse to load the menu.

Chainloading

If you want to chainload other operating systems (such as Windows) or boot loaders, copy (or symlink) the chain.c32 module to the syslinux directory (for details, see the instructions in the previous section). Then create a section in the configuration file:

LABEL windows
        MENU LABEL Windows
        COM32 chain.c32
        APPEND hd0 3

hd0 3 is the third partition on the first BIOS drive - drives are counted from zero, but partitions are counted from one. For more details about chainloading, see [1].

If you have grub2 installed in your boot partition, you can chainload it by using:

LABEL grub2
       MENU LABEL Grub2
       COM32 chain.c32
       append file=../grub/boot.img

This may be required for booting from ISO images.

Using memtest

Use this LABEL section to launch memtest (install the memtest86+ package):

LABEL memtest
        MENU LABEL Memtest86+
        LINUX ../memtest86+/memtest.bin

HDT

HDT (Hardware Detection Tool) displays hardware information. Like before, the .c32 file has to be copied or symlinked from /boot/syslinux/. For PCI info, either copy or symlink /usr/share/hwdata/pci.ids to /boot/syslinux/pci.ids

LABEL hdt
        MENU LABEL Hardware Info
        COM32 hdt.c32

Reboot and power off

Use the following sections to reboot or power off your machine:

LABEL reboot
        MENU LABEL Reboot
        COM32 reboot.c32

LABEL poweroff
        MENU LABEL Power Off
        COMBOOT poweroff.com

Clear Menu

To clear the screen when exiting the menu, add the following line:

MENU CLEAR

Troubleshooting

I have a Syslinux Prompt - Yikes!

You can type in the LABEL name of the entry that you want to boot (as per your syslinux.cfg). If you used the example configs, just type

boot: arch

If you get an error that the config file could not be loaded, you can pass your needed boot parameters, e.g.:

boot: ../vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/sda2 ro initrd=../initramfs-linux.img

If you do not have access to 'boot:' in ramfs, and therefore temporarily unable to boot kernel again,

1) create temp directory, in order to mount your root partition (if it does not exist already)

 mkdir -p /new_root

2) mount / under /new_root (in case /boot/ is on the same partition, otherwise you will need to mount them both) Note: if /boot is on its own ext2 partition then busybox cannot mount it.

 mount /dev/sd[a-z][1-9] /new_root

3) use 'vi' and edit syslinux.cfg again to suit your needs and save file;

4) reboot

No Default or UI found on some computers

Certain motherboard manufacturers have less compatibility for booting from USB devices than others. While an ext4 formatted USB drive may boot on a more recent computer, some computers may hang if the boot partition containing the kernel and initrd are not on a fat16 partition. To prevent an older machine from loading ldlinux and failing to read syslinux.cfg, use cfdisk to create a fat16 partition (<=2GB) and format with

pacman -S dosfstools
mkfs.msdos -F 16 /dev/sda1

then install and configure syslinux.

Windows boots up! No Syslinux!

Solution: Make sure the partition that contains /boot has the boot flag enabled. Also, make sure the boot flag is not enabled on the Windows partition. See the installation section above.

The MBR that comes with syslinux looks for the first active partition that has the boot flag set. The Windows partition was likely found first and had the boot flag set. If you wanted, you could use the MBR that Windows or MS-DOS fdisk provides.

Menu entries do nothing

You select a menu entry and it does nothing. It "refreshes" the menu.
This usually means that you have an error in your configuration. Hit TAB to edit your boot parameters. Alternatively, press Esc and type in the LABEL of your boot entry (Example: arch)

Cannot remove ldlinux.sys

ldlinux.sys has the immutable attribute set which prevents the file from being deleted or overwritten. This is because the sector location of the file must not change or else syslinux has to be reinstalled. To remove:

chattr -i /boot/syslinux/ldlinux.sys
rm /boot/syslinux/ldlinux.sys

A white block on the upper left corner appears when a kernel is loaded with modesetting on in early stage and when using vesamenu

Brain0 said: As of linux-3.0, the modesetting driver tries to keep the current contents of the screen after changing the resolution (at least it does so with my Intel, when having syslinux in text mode). It seems that this goes wrong when combined with the vesamenu module in syslinux (the white block is actually an attempt to keep the syslinux menu, but the driver fails to capture the picture from vesa graphics mode).

If you have a custom resolution and a vesamenu with early modesetting, try to append the following in the kernel line in syslinux.cfg to remove the white block and continue in graphics mode:

APPEND root=/dev/sda6 ro 5 radeon.modeset=1 vga=current logo.nologo quiet splash

See also

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